Gender in Policy and Practice

This book exposes the complexity of single-sex schooling, and sheds new light on how gender operates in policy and practice in education. The essays collected in this volume cover a wide range of institutions, including K-12 and higher education, public and private schools, and schools in the US and beyond. Detailing the educational experiences of both young men and women, this collection examines how schooling shapes-and is shaped by- the social construction of gender in history and in contemporary society.

Single-Sex Schools

Single sex schooling might appear to be an obscure issue on the sidelines of the educational policy debates of our times. But it is far from this. In fact, a sizable number of people and political organizations would like to make these schools obscure, but somehow they are “scaling up” rather than down. In 1996, there were only two public single sex schools operating in America. By 2015 there are now at least 100 public single sex schools, despite opposition from the outset. These schools are primarily serving poor, urban, black and Latino, at risk children. This book takes up the challenge of studying the effectiveness of single sex schools. Riordan frees the discussion of its ideological and political baggage and brings a degree of theoretical and empirical balance to the debate. The book provides a sociological foundation for considering single sex schools. The basic argument is that the larger school context of all girls or all boys serves as the driving factor for producing favorable outcomes in single sex schools.

Single-Gender Schools and the Inner City- Can they Work?

Today's public schools are in peril. High drop-out rates among our youth, teen pregnancy at an all-time high and parental apathy pervade mainstream American schools. Many schools and school districts are beginning to offer alternative means of educating students. An option which has gained momentum over the years is that of a single-gender setting. Not hailed as a panacea, however many studies are suggesting that the single-gender setting can have a positive effect on school variables. This book goes in depth into how one school district in San Antonio, TX is experimenting with such a setting and are having great success. Dr. Diop's study suggests that although there is much work to be done in educating America's youth, to offer alternatives in the way of educating our children can only yield positive results.

Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology

Donald R. McCreary and Joan C. Chrisler The Development of Gender Studies in Psychology Studies of sex differences are as old as the ?eld of psychology, and they have been conducted in every sub?eld of the discipline. There are probably many reasons for the popularity of these studies, but three reasons seem to be most prominent. First, social psychological studies of person perception show that sex is especially salient in social groups. It is the ?rst thing people notice about others, and it is one of the things we remember best (Fiske, Haslam, & Fiske, 1991; Stangor, Lynch, Duan, & Glass, 1992). For example, people may not remember who uttered a witty remark, but they are likely to remember whether the quip came from a woman or a man. Second, many people hold ?rm beliefs that aspects of physiology suit men and women for particular social roles. Men’s greater upper body strength makes them better candidates for manual labor, and their greater height gives the impression that they would make good leaders (i. e. , people we look up to). Women’s reproductive capacity and the caretaking tasks (e. g. , breastfeeding, baby minding) that accompany it make them seem suitable for other roles that require gentleness and nurturance. Third, the logic that underlies hypothesis testing in the sciences is focused on difference. Researchers design their studies with the hope that they can reject the null hypothesis that experimental groups do not differ.

Gender

A landmark publication in the social sciences, Linda Lindsey’s Gender is the most comprehensive textbook to explore gender sociologically, as a critical and fundamental dimension of a person’s identity, interactions, development, and role and status in society. Ranging in scope from the everyday lived experiences of individuals to the complex patterns and structures of gender that are produced by institutions in our global society, the book reveals how understandings of gender vary across time and place and shift along the intersecting lines of race, ethnicity, culture, sexuality, class and religion. Arriving at a time of enormous social change, the new, seventh edition extends its rigorous, theoretical approach to reflect on recent events and issues with insights that challenge conventional thought about the gender binary and the stereotypes that result. Recent and emerging topics that are investigated include the #MeToo and LGBTQ-rights movements, political misogyny in the Trump era, norms of masculinity, marriage and family formation, resurgent feminist activism and praxis, the gendered workplace, and profound consequences of neoliberal globalization. Enriching its sociological approach with interdisciplinary insight from feminist, biological, psychological, historical, and anthropological perspectives, the new edition of Gender provides a balanced and broad approach with readable, dynamic content that furthers student understanding, both of the importance of gender and how it shapes individual trajectories and social processes in the U.S. and across the globe.

Exploring Unequal Achievement in the Schools

One of the most disturbing problems in American education today is the unequal achievement of children in schools. Few problems have sparked greater concern than the issue of why students from different social origins differ so significantly in their academic performance. This book explores the role played by families and schools in this troubling problem. It employs a social constructionist approach in considering how ascribed characteristics (race, gender, and class) intersect with the daily interactions of teachers and students in classrooms and with the educational practices and structures within schools (tracking, testing, and teacher expectations) to play an exacting role in the construction of success or failure. It suggests that the new student identity that begins to emerge as a result of these processes provides a self-fulfilling prophesy of expectation and belief, which defines how students see themselves as learners and achievers. Through these practices, schooling becomes a crucial factor in the social construction of academic success. The author's final conclusion is inescapable: unequal achievement in school is largely a social construction. But it is a social construction facilitated both by student attributes including gender, race, and class and by the educational structures and policies some schools employ. Because of this undeniable fact, parents, educational practitioners, and policy makers must continue to investigate social policies and practices relative to student abilities and make every effort to understand how they may be related to achievement. Informed by research, they must endeavor to see this power inherent in schooling and the need to effect change.

Same, Different, Equal

Although coeducation has been the norm within private and public schools since the 1970s, single-sex education has staged a comeback in recent years as a means of addressing the academic and social problems faced by some students. Single-sex education raises controversy on ideological grounds, and in 1996 the Supreme Court struck down the all-male admissions policy at the Virginia Military Institute in a decision that has cast a legal cloud over public initiatives. In this timely book, Rosemary Salomone offers a reasoned educational and legal argument supporting single-sex education as an alternative to coeducation, particularly in the case of disadvantaged minority students. Salomone examines the history of women’s education and exclusion, philosophical and psychological theories of sameness and difference, findings on educational achievement and performance, the research evidence on single-sex schooling, and the legal questions that have arisen. Correcting many of the current misconceptions about single-sex education, she argues that it is a viable option and that the road to gender equality should be paved with diverse educational opportunities for all students—regardless of race, class, or gender.

Encyclopedia of Educational Reform and Dissent

The history of American education is replete with educational reform, and to a lesser extent, educational dissent. Consider the present: you have various forms of privatization, school choice, the 'No Child Left Behind' act, home schooling, 'value-added' accountability, alternative teacher preparation programs, on-line instruction, etc. This range of activity is not exceptional. For instance, consider the past: progressive education, open education, the junior high school, the middle school, Life Adjustment education, career education, vocational education, the comprehensive high school, school-to-work, year-round schooling, behavioral objectives, proficiency exams (high-stakes testing), whole language, learning packages and self-paced instruction, modular scheduling, site-based management, all presented as the way to reform American schools, at least in part. Then you have the reformers themselves, such as John Dewey, George Counts, Herbert Kohl, John Holt, Charles Silberman, Admiral Hyman Rickover, James Bryant Conant, all the way back to Horace Mann himself. Dissenters, and dissenting movements, while not as numerous and certainly not as well known in educational circles, count the various faith-based schools and individuals such as Archbishop Hughes of New York.Clearly, this is an area rich in ideas, rife with controversy, and vital in its outcome for individuals and the nation as a whole. And yet, strangely enough, there exists no major encyclopedia bringing the varied strands together in one place as a ready reference for scholars, teachers, school administrators, and students studying to enter the educational profession. This two-volume work is intended to be that authoritative resource. Key themes and topics include: " biographies of reformers and dissenters " theoretical and ideological perspectives " key programs and legislation " judicial verdicts impacting educational change in America " the politics and processes of educational reform and policy making " dissent and resistance to reform " technology's impact on educational reform. A Reader's Guide in the front matter groups entries around such themes to help readers find related entries more easily.